Pamamaalam o paglalakbay?


The  movie Departures narrated a peculiar journey of a Kobayashi Daigo  towards his true calling as an encoffiner. After the disbandment of his orchestra, he and his wife migrated back to his hometown of Yamagata to settle anew. Assuming that a job posting on the newspaper was a travelling agency, Daigo was surprised to know that the aid in departures referred to in the advertisement was for the dead. Through his senior, Sasaki Ikuhei, he eventually learns and masters the art or skill of encoffining.



The movie showed two sides of what happened when a person dies, the sides of the family and the encoffiners. Personally, I do not give much thought on the meaning nor the actuality of death because of the dispirited feelings associated with it. Thus, the view of Shokichi on death as part of a transience were both interesting and confusing. On the first hand, I never viewed death as part of a journey. Rather, death to me is an end to one journey that is life here on earth. And from there, another journey begins. These two is not necessarily part of one process where life after death is viewed as a totally different story than Shokichi’s view as an extension of the life on earth. He offers a perspective where the negative associations of death could be alleviated in the sense that life could go on. Moreover, the interest in his statement could stem from the possibility or mystery as to what the other side could offer.

On the other hand, his statement was quite puzzling because it raises the question as to the reason of the death of the physical body. Is it a requirement for entrance to the other side? If so, is there a soul that continues? Such questions challenged me to think of death as it is than its effects. I think the mysteries surrounding death are because of the end of a communication to a physical person whose life has actually ended. His job was further intensified due to the death of Tsuyako. Through this thinking, it might appear to be a coping mechanism where he finds honor for the privilege of being one of the last to see before the dead leave for the “gateway”. Somehow, their insights from the other side would be helpful in resolving this case. (But I do not wish to be visited by any person who have gone from earth)

Keeping in mind the Buddhist concept of “no-self”, the identity when “I” is uttered is questionable as humans are constantly changing. Perhaps my confusion as to what goes through the journey could be explained through this doctrine.  Firstly, I would agree that humans, whether physical or emotional are constantly evolving. What we refer to as I now, would not be the same I that would be doing or saying the same after some time. It might be possible that the person that would continue on the journey on the other side would only be a part of what he or she used to be. This appears to be a nod towards the metaphor of the flame used by the Buddhists. The old flame may not be the same as the new flame passed to the next unlit candle, yet traces of the old could still be associated to the new.  Thus, whenever I remember a death of a loved one, the pain of their departure is not the only emotion they leave behind. Remnants of their old self remain and soothe their absence. While new flames or memories are made, the moments leading to those are instilled.



Besides the topic of death, the movie also used different symbolisms that could be associated with both life and death. The scene with the salmon struggling against the current while another dead salmon goes with the flow could represent life in itself or the efforts in trying to lengthen or extend avoiding the inevitable death. Though these efforts are worth the risk, the contrast of the salmon struggling and the dead fish puts into context how inevitable death is. However, it also reflects the kind of life that we go through. Next, when Mika, the wife and Daigo tried to restore the octopus who was supposedly their dinner, is reminiscent of the salmon wherein it could be that the octopus has met its destination, bringing it to its past state would be contrary to what it could serve. Upon entering the house, Mika and Daigo were nostalgic due to the collection of records owned by her dead mother. The records were memories to which the dad was associated. It reminds us of the concept where a person is a combination of parts. In this example, the father was physically gone but some pieces of him still remained. This shows how we are able to leave some of ourselves with others. It was also interesting to see the room of Sasaki where he eats which is full of plants. The plants could be a symbol for life; a reminder that although death could be both be a part of a journey or destination, life makes up the majority of such a process. The blossoms of life might mean his grounding that puts his whole view into perspective. While deaths happen everyday, so does life. The Christmas celebration at their office showed the ironic situation of enjoying a dead chicken for their appetite. This scene was both inviting and thought-provoking as it could constitute the balance that must be maintained sacrificing a chicken, or in a deeper sense some life for others to prosper or enjoy. Though the fried chicken does not automatically mean death, it could symbolize that death too could be somehow celebrated. Lastly, the stone letter of the father of Daigo given to him when he was young was probably the most symbolic. Stones in its literal sense are hard and stubborn. Yet, in this movie, it was given as a token of love defying the assumption that stones are not supposed to be used in love. It was solid and big, just like the father’s love for Daigo. Though it still is a mystery as to why his father held the stone Daigo gave when he was young on his deathbed, it speaks volumes of a father’s solid love for his child.

Stone Letter 

Image result for sedimentary rocks white

After watching the movie for the second time (the first during a recollection back in high school), I have always thought that my parents deserved a stone, rocky in some places yet big enough for them to hold in one hand. Though their methods to mold me is not at all smooth or soothing, the words they have told me are slowly starting to make sense now. I hope for them to retrieve it in my belongings along with some of the things that have sentimental value in them. I was always inspired by how Mia, from Princess Diaries retrieved his dad’s letter, finally convincing her to become a princess. In the same way, his job that he initially doubted, gave way for him to validate that all that has happened in the past was worth it. This movie does make you look at stones and encoffining differently.


The heck?


In Jackson, Mississippi, a young woman, Skeeter wanted to become a writer.  For her to pursue this, she needed to write a book with a topic that has not been talked about. Skeeter then planned on writing one that focuses on black female maids, specifically their experiences towards their white wealthy employers. Skeeter sought help from her friends’ black female helpers so she could start writing, she later then began with Aibileen. Aibileen was hesitant at first because writing and publishing books that seeks equality for both the whites and the blacks is considered illegal. Eventually, she agreed to share her story to Skeeter however Aibileen’s story was not enough. Her best friend and another black female helper, Minny decided to share her experiences as well. Aibileen, Minny and Skeeter had a hard time encouraging other blacks to tell their stories but when Yule Mae was arrested, they decided to come together at Aibileen’s house and share their stories and experiences to Skeeter.

The book was published and it became a bestseller. Because of the success of the book, Skeeter was given an offer to work in New York City but she decided not to take it because it would be a selfish decision to make if authorities would find out she and the black female maids wrote it but Minny and Aibileen convinced her to take the offer. In the end, Minny had a lifetime job happily working still as a maid while Aibileen walked away from her life as a helper and decided to pursue her dream of becoming a writer.

How are the following  groups represented?

White females

Most of them appeared to be dominating over other males and females. Yet, the projection of their strong traits were varied. Old white females appeared to have a strong personality but not as aggressive like their daughters. Such a trait was shown by how they make their presence or opinion felt or heard by others. Likewise, it could be said that they are not that influential in decision making as reflected by the deviations made by their daughters in their own lives. The young white females project strongness in their own ways. For example, Skeeter and Celia appeared to be distinct against their peers with their decisions to pursue career for the former and the inability to perform domestic jobs for the latter. However, Hilly and her other friends chose to conform to norms typically associated with females. The difference lie as to how they treat others particularly their black helpers.

Black Females

All but one black females were shown as inferior beings clothed in their maid uniforms. They are the recipients of discrimination by white females or society in general. Additionally, their color instantly associates them to most crimes happening around the town. However, they all find companionship with one another given the same status as them. In the movie one of the black female maids, Yule Mae got arrested for stealing her employer, Miss Hilly’s ring. This incident triggered all the other maids to come together to share their stories and experiences to Skeeter. Another instance in the movie that showed how black females were represented was when Hilly drafted a bill that requires every white household to have a separate bathroom for their black female helpers because for Hilly, they are considered dirty and disease carriers. These examples illustrate the extreme racism experienced by the black females.

Whites Males

White males in the movie are not emphasized as much. Their occasional appearance in the movie could be characterized as subordinated to bordering submissive. The husbands seemed to be an accessory or status symbol among the white females signifying the assumed success of the females. For instance, the lack of a husband of Skeeter appeared to be unbecoming for others given her peers having one. Alongside such submissiveness, the attempt on aggression or domination by a white male was through Lowell, the boyfriend of Skeeter. His opposition towards the book of Skeeter could be paralleled to the assumed traits typically associated with men as overpowering or aggressive.

Black Males

Likewise, the black males were underrepresented. Their subtle contributions to the lives of the main characters were shown in various ways. Minnie’s husband was represented through the shouts and injury of her wife. In the same way, the aggression possessed by Medgar Evers was used to dissent the perpetuation of racial discrimination that lead to his assassination. In the same way, the church pastor projected a sense of tranquility and relief with his limited exposure as a compassionate leader. In contrast to the subordinated role of the their counterparts, it seems that the black males were represented as strong or important. However, this underrepresentation could signal the undermining of the struggles of men or black men in society. They too could be victims of discrimination due to their color.  


Meanwhile, the police was associated with violence. Following the arrest of Yule Mae Davis, the police seemed susceptible to the requests of the white people. The police officers stopped and arrested Yule Mae in front of other maids and white people around. At the request of Hilly, she was arrested for stealing the ring she got while cleaning the house as she truly needs the money for her son’s tuition. While her acts are not to be tolerated, her choices were limited by the indifference of Hilly.


There are only few scenes from the movie that emphasize lives of politicians. We can say that there is racism in politics. It was shown through television that people in politics kill black individuals involved in politics.


Children in the movie are not given much agency. In the same way the blacks are discriminated, the children are also victims. Mobley’s mom, Elizabeth did not give her full attention because the mother experience baby blues with her. However, Aibileen always tell her the words “You is kind. You is smart.You is important” that makes her feel that she really is. She felt the love of a mother from others instead of feeling this affection from her own mom. The protest of Mobley as Elizabeth fired Aibileen did not work even though the latter became more like her real mother than what the former did.

Wealthy White Society

These people are seen to be harmless when they come together. Seemingly discussing topics affecting them, this wealthy white society emphasizes the white privileges. For example white women are involved in Junior League wherein the concept of ‘separate but equal’ concept is tolerated and preferred.


One of the groups underrepresented or not represented in the movie are the gays. They may have issues that are important but the movie emphasized the struggles and lives of black females in Mississippi. While their issues are equally important, it would not be highlighted if the movie tried to be overarching in its representation of the issues back in the day.

Using Sally Haslanger’s Focal Point of Gender and Race 

Haslanger’s Focal Point of Gender and Race gives insight as to the intersections of different factors contributing to the social structures imposed by society as shown in the film. Two structures are proposed by Haslanger, namely, gender and race. The explanations are in the order of gender and race


Women are expected to do domestic work because this is what has been dictated for them which is to take care of children, to be a housewife, and to stay at home. This is what has been marked and labeled for women. Most women in the movie portray this role of a woman, a married woman with children and a husband. In an attempt to conform to such norms, Celia tries to become a responsible housewife because she knows her responsibility as a woman and a wife to her husband. However, she asked someone to help her in doing all the domestic works because she’s afraid that her husband may know that she doesn’t know how to do such things. Although, she eventually improved her skills in domestic tasks with the help of Minny.

In the case of race, there are certain expectations that have to be met. Such expectations are passed on to others affecting their identity on the basis of skin color. In the movie, it was evident which identities are associated to blacks and whites. The movie started with Aibileen telling Skeeter about her, and in explaining how she became a maid, she said, mother was a maid, Grandma a house slave.” This explanation encompasses how she internalized her being a maid making it seem like it is her fate.  She felt that she’s expected to be the same with her mother and grandmother. Colored people even before they are born, already know their role in the society. They know that because of their color, some things are already meant for them; they are supposed to be inferior to the white people, they are ought to suffer, treated unequally, and so on. Colored people have accepted the fact that this is what society have expected them to do, to accept the norms and to live their lives as if they were already planned. Meanwhile, when you are a white female, the expectation of marriage and children are projected to the young unmarried females like Skeeter.

When it comes to the physical characteristics of black and whites, whites are usually skinny and have a very sensitive skin as they think that this is a good image of a perfect physical appearance of a person. However, blacks don’t care that much on their physical appearances and most of them are chubby. This is evident in the movie wherein women of wealthy society are very skinny and conscious on their looks but blacks like Aibileen and Minny are chubby and their looks don’t matter to them. Maybe, the adherence of the white females to a slim physique is to make them desirable for the male or for child-bearing.


This internalized identity could be best represented by the image of a “perfect” home composed of a providing husband, children, many for that matter, and a maid or nanny to assist in the taking care of the children and of the household. The members of the Junior League composed of white women perpetuate such narratives making baby-making the popular or “in” thing among their age group. Skeeter and Celia are an exception to this narrative because one wants to focus on their career while the latter, attempted to do the “in” thing but had failed to do so. Likewise, the uniform of the maids and other helpers are the ultimate symbol of their inferiority and discrimination. Additionally, the buses they use for transportation and the separate toilets that were built for them can also be considered symbols of their inferiority.


Thus, non-conformity was seen to be unbecoming and trivial to others. Stuart, Skeeter’s boyfriend broke up with her when he knew that she helped those black women and wrote “The Help”. As for him, he has his own expectation from what a woman should do. He might be expecting her to act like Skeeter’s circle of friends. However, she’s  a lot different from them especially her beliefs and deep realizations or understanding of black women’s lives.

In addition, the idea of “separate but equal” in society were enforced through the segregation from public transportations to the comfort rooms. In this case, the norms were turned to ordinances legalizing the discrimination in Jackson. More importantly, black females are believed to be destined as maids due to the lack of opportunity to expand elsewhere. The daughter of Millie, though hurtful to her, also became a maid. Her tips to her daughter are evidence oh how accustomed she is to what her bosses want and what they want from her.


This pattern of thinking is evident in the way Skeeter’s colleagues pushed her to date Stuart or how she was not commended for her career. More importantly, in the beginning, Aibileen stressed how Skeeter’s choices contrasted her to other females. Yet, even such an empowerment did not separate her from being subjugated to the norms on gender. Her job at the newspaper was to write tips for improving domestic jobs. Though this job is not to be belittled, the editor assumed her knowledge in such topics because of her gender.

When it comes to race, blacks in are associated as maids of the white wealthy individuals and are given low salary. However, whites are described as employers. Most of the time they occupy high positions in any fields of jobs. They are involved in businesses and politics that make more money than the others. In politics, black people are not fully accepted by the white people in politics and even the society. In the movie, it was shown that black politicians are being killed because of the race. Although, white people usually occupy the highest positions in politics and dominating the society. In terms of social networks, blacks find companionship with others of similar status and experience exploitation from the white society. In the movie, blacks come together to share their individual stories and help one another if problem arises. As much as possible, whites only make friends and connections similar with their color and their status or roles. This was shown through the circle of friends of Hilly and they are all part of the Junior League.

Resisting Reality: The Skeeter and Aibileen Way 

The moment she chose tell her story is the moment she resisted reality. At the end of the movie, Aibileen was falsely accused from stealing kitchenware that made her employer, Elizabeth fired her. This is the time when she realized that she has to do something else rather than just being a maid. It may be hard for Aibileen to walk away and leave Mobley but she chose to pursue being a writer because her son encouraged her to do it. This is a good decision because she was able to realize her true purpose in life that is not defined by her color.

Skeeter dreamed of becoming a writer ever since and she had worked her way hard just for her to become one, even risking her own life just so she can create a story that would meet the expectations asked from her. When she was finally given the opportunity to become one, she declined the offer because she remembered how the black female maids helped her achieve her dream of becoming a writer. For Skeeter, pursuing her dream and accepting the offer would be a selfish act because no one would protect the black female maids and herself as well.

Skeeter and Aibileen showed how they shattered delusions and resisted reality. As for Skeeter’s case, she demonstrated that becoming a wife is not the sole destiny of any woman. While becoming a housewife should not be viewed as inferior, the expectation to become one must not be passed to others who might have different goals in life. And while Aibileen was fearsome in narrating her story, she slowly chose to resist the reality given to her the day she said yes to Skeeter. Through her, others were empowered to speak of their story.

Final Words 


In the words of Charlotte Phelan, Skeeter’s mom,  “courage sometimes skips a generation.” Even though changes could have been done earlier, what matters is that it is done.


“Every day you’re not dead in the ground, when you wake up in the morning, you’re gonna have to make some decisions.” Constantine’s words tells us that life does not just picks itself to us, there are times wherein we need to choose and settle things on our own.


Aibileen’s words “You is kind. You is smart. You is important.” teach us to erase all negativities and insecurities about ourselves and remember that we deserve respect and love from others no matter who we are.


*This work is a cumulative effort of Rianna Custodio, Sophia Daroya, and Schekeana Santuele for USAGENR A51